The earliest human uses of psychoactice medicine involved plants and fruits whose mood-altering qualities
were discovered and then cultivated.
Ancient Civilizations Sumerians, Egyptian, Indian, Chinese, South American, and other ancient cultures used opium, alchohol, Cannabis(marijuana), peyote, psychedelic mushrooms, and coca leaves.
Middle ages (1400-1700) Pschoactive plants, such as belladonna and psilocybin mushrooms, were used by so-called "witches" and shamans for healing and spiritual purposes;distilled alcohol and coffee
were added to the list of available pschoactive drugs.
Renaissance & Age of discovery (1400-1700) Tabacco, coffee, tea, distilled alcohol, and opium spread along the trade routes. The service-to-self ruling classes, governments, and merchants controlled much of the trade.
Early industrial Revolution (1700-1900) New rifinement techniques (e.g. morphines from opium), new methods of use (hypodermic needles), and new manufacturing techniques( cigarette-rolling machines) increase the use, abuse and addiction liability.
Twentieth Century wider distribution channels, new synthetic drugs, and extensive drug regulations (including alchohol prohibition/repeal and marijuana exclusion) generally increased illegal and legal use.
Defining addiction as a disease and researching biochemical roots of addiction helped expand treatment options.
These days there are huge amounts of money involved in the drug trade,excellarated after the 9/11 hoax on the public. Launched wars in Afghanistan and Iraq: the bombings of Spanish, British, and Indian
trains; and other acts of terrorism have emphasized the geopolitics of growing, refining, smuggling, and selling drugs. At the begining of the twenty-first centrury, while the use of club drugs (estasy&GHB) declines, alcohol, tabacoo, marijuana, and methamphetamines are still the drug of choice. A recent
increase in the abuse of perscription drugs, especially pain medications, has raised their abuse by teens. Hiv, Aids, Hepatitis C, and family break-up, predominantly in substance abusers, continue to grow.
At the end of the day, the actions of humans reflects the integral part that psychoactive drugs have played in the social, economic, and emotional development of civilization; and through the current drug of choice often changes, the reason for drug use remain the same.
CLASSIFICACTION OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS
Psychoactive drugs can be identified by their sreet name, or trade name. This site classifies most by their general effects.
- Uppers. Stimulants, such as cocaine, and methamphetamines, caffeine, and nicotine, force the release of energy chemicals.The strongest stimulants-cocaine and methamphetamine-can produce an intense rush and in the case of methamphetamines, more pro-longed highs.
- Downers, Depressants include opoids (heroin) sedative-hypnotics and alchohol. They depress circulatory, respritory, and muscular systems; they also control pain, reduce anxiety, promotes sleep, lower inhibitions; they can also induce euphoria (feeling of happiness and well being).
- Psychedelics (LSD&MDMA) causes some stimulation but mostly they alter sensory input and can cause illusions, delusions and hallucinations.
- Anabolic steroids and other sports drugs are used to inhance athletic performance by increasing indurance, muscle size and aggression.
- Psychiatric medications include anti-depressants, antipsychotics, mood stablizers, and antianxiety drugs. Their official reason for subsription, is to rebalance brain chemistry when there are mental health problems.
- Compusive Behavior, such as binge-eating,anorexia,compulsive gambling, sexual compulsion, internet addiction, compulsive shopping, and even co-dependency, affect many of the same areas of the brain that are influenced by psychoactive drugs.
Five Historical Themes of Drug Use:
1.the basic need of human beings to cope with their enviroment and enhance their existance;
2.the vulnerability of brain chemistry to psychoactive drugs, behavioral addictions, and mental illness;
3.the involvement of ruling classes, governments and businesses in growing, manufacturing, distributing, taxing, and prohibition drugs;
4.technological advances in refining and synthesizing drugs;
5.the development of faster and more efficent methods of putting drugs into the body.